Part 3

Outcomes of our fisheries management

Highlights

image shows the highlights of the outcome of AFMA

Part 3

Figure 01: Map of Commonwealth fisheries managed by AFMA Figure 01: Map of Commonwealth fisheries managed by AFMA

Report against deliverables

In pursuing ecologically sustainable and economically efficient Commonwealth fisheries, AFMA works together with other Australian and state and territory government agencies, and our international counterparts in the Pacific, Southern and Indian Oceans and Torres Strait. We also work with the fishing industry, scientists, recreational and environmental fishery stakeholders to set catch limits that ensure healthy fish stocks are maintained and to develop policies and fishery-specific management arrangements that minimise fishers' impacts on the broader marine environment, including protected species.

In undertaking this work, we provide cost-effective management, monitoring, domestic compliance, fisheries border protection and licensing services. Results in providing these programs, as forecast in the Agriculture Portfolio Budget Statements 2014–15, are detailed in the table below.

Overall in the last 12 months, AFMA met or exceeded predicted levels of delivery, with two exceptions:

  • The number of completed independent fisheries surveys was lower as the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna elected not to conduct an aerial survey of southern bluefin tuna and an acoustic survey for blue grenadier did not take place.
  • In regard to disposals of forfeited fishing vessels, while six vessels were apprehended, AFMA only received three. Two of these were disposed of on land and one remains in detention pending disposal. Hence 67 per cent of received vessels have been disposed of in financial year 2014–15 (further details on page 66).

Deliverables

2013–14 Predicted

2013–14 Actual

2014–15 Predicted

2014–15 Actual

Results

Completed research projects including Torres Strait Fisheries3.

10<

14

10<

10

Two Torres Strait research projects were completed in line with recommendations from the Torres Strait Scientific Advisory Committee. Additionally, eight essential stock assessment related research projects recommended by AFMA's Research Committee for AFMA funding were completed.

Completed fishery independent surveys.

10

10

10

8

Eight of the ten fisheries independent surveys were completed. These were:

  • two surveys were conducted in the Northern Prawn Fishery, a winter survey in July 2014 and a pre-season recruitment survey in February 2015
  • a fishery independent survey in the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery was completed in September 2014 to provide fishery-independent indices of abundance for some quota and byproduct species
  • a survey to determine the biomass estimates of scallop beds in the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery was undertaken in May 2015
  • a fishery independent survey for the Great Australian Bight Trawl Sector was completed in April 2015
  • a trawl survey was undertaken in the Heard Island and Macdonald Islands Fishery in May 2015 to monitor the abundance of icefish and Patagonian toothfish. The data collected forms the basis of the annual stock assessments carried out by Australian scientists and reviewed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
  • a survey was undertaken in the Small Pelagic Fishery to assess the spawning stock of blue mackerel off the South East coast of Australia
  • a fishery independent survey was undertaken in the area of Torres Strait Rock Lobster Fishery in March 2015.

Number of fisheries regulated under plans of management, including Torres Strait Fisheries.

12

12

12

12

Management plans apply to the following fisheries:

  • Northern Prawn Fishery
  • Torres Strait Prawn Fishery
  • Torres Strait Finfish Fishery
  • Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery
  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery
  • Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery
  • Small Pelagic Fishery
  • Southern Squid Jig Fishery
  • Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery
  • Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery
  • Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery
  • Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery.

These along with other instruments, such as fisheries regulations, regulate activity in these fisheries.

Number of harvest strategies applied to regulated fisheries.

11

13

11

13

The following fisheries have harvest strategies that are applied:

  • Northern Prawn Fishery
  • Torres Strait Prawn Fishery
  • North West Slope Trawl Fishery
  • Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery
  • Coral Sea Fishery
  • Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery
  • Sub Antarctic fisheries
  • Small Pelagic Fishery
  • Southern Squid Jig Fishery
  • Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery
  • Skipjack Fishery
  • Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery
  • Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery.

Manual completed transactions.

400

828

400

567

The number of manually completed transactions continues to reduce.

Deliverables

2013–14 Predicted

2013–14 Actual

2014–15 Predicted

2014–15 Actual

Results

Automated completed transactions.

2500

2158

2500

4556

Leasing of fishing concessions now follows a simplified one-step process.

Amount of levies collected.

Greater than 99% of levies collected

99.8%

Greater than 99% of levies collected

99.1%

The target was met and exceeded.

Prosecute illegal foreign fishers.

Note 4

25

Note5

22

Five masters and 17 crew members from five foreign fishing vessels were prosecuted with fines ranging from $1000 to $10 000 being imposed by the courts. The master and crew of a Papua New Guinea vessel were handed over to Papua New Guinean authorities under the Torres Strait Treaty arrangements, where they were successfully prosecuted and fined.

Dispose of illegal foreign fishing vessels.

Note 6

18

Note

2

Of the six foreign fishing vessels apprehended, two were disposed of on land by AFMA, three sank at sea and one vessel remains in AFMA custody on Thursday Island pending disposal.

Capacity building programs in regional countries.

4

4 7

4

5 8

AFMA conducted capacity building programs in Australia and across the region with fisheries and police officers from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Kiribati and Vanuatu. These officers undertook fisheries management, compliance and governance training and participated in patrols at sea.

AFMA officers also continued to participate in multilateral fisheries surveillance operations with regional partners such as Tonga, Cook Islands, Palau, Solomon Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia and Indonesia to deter unreported and unregulated fishing and provide on the job capacity development for fisheries compliance officers.

AFMA, at the invitation of Singapore, delivered a training program to officers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries in Singapore and at the invitation of Malaysia, to compliance officers in Malaysia.

Additionally, AFMA provided training to Pacific Island officers at the Australian Maritime College in Hobart.

Deliverables

2013–14 Predicted

2013–14 Actual

2014–15 Predicted

2014–15 Actual

Results

Evidence of suspected illegal foreign fishing vessel forwarded to regional organisation and/or country.

100% of cases

100% of cases

100% of cases

100% of cases

AFMA participated in regional co-operative surveillance and enforcement activities under the auspices of the South East Asian Regional Plan of Action to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including combating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. As a result of intelligence notifications generated by Australia a number of illegal, unreported and unregulated factory fishing vessels were detained.

Intelligence information and evidence packs were also shared with Indonesia and Papua New Guinea under the auspices of the Regional Plan of Actions Arafura and Timor Seas sub regional working group.

As part of Australia's membership of the Forum Fisheries Agency and the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, AFMA deployed officers on multiple patrols in the Pacific region and shared evidence of suspected illegal fishing with regional stakeholders.

Forfeited vessels disposed of9.

100%

95%

100%

67% 10

Of the six foreign fishing vessels apprehended two Indonesian vessels were disposed of on land, three Indonesian vessels sank as they were unseaworthy and could not make port and the Papua New Guinea vessel remains in AFMA custody on Thursday Island pending disposal.

Review biennial domestic compliance risk assessment.

100%

n/a

100%

100%

AFMA's Fisheries Operations Branch has completed the 2015–17 national compliance risk assessment.

Risks that will be prioritised for the annual
2015–16 National Compliance Program are:

  • quota evasion
  • vessel monitoring systems
  • electronic monitoring systems compliance.

In addition we will continue to maintain 'business as usual' maintenance programs to address the following risks

  • quota reconciliation (28 day program)
  • fishing in closures
  • threatened, endangered or protected species interactions.

Report against program key performance indicators

Harvest strategies exist for all major Commonwealth fisheries and are subject to regular monitoring and adjustment. Where possible, AFMA applies maximum economic yield harvest strategy targets to key fish stocks. Maximum economic yield is the most efficient harvest point and is a more conservative target than maximum sustainable yield. Of AFMA's top 30 stocks by value, 18 are managed to maximum economic yield targets. The remaining 12 stocks cannot be managed to maximum economic yield, largely reflecting that most of these stocks are subject to international harvest strategies or treaties, which may have adopted other targets to manage those fisheries.

We have also been devoting considerable resources to ecological risk assessments for Commonwealth managed fisheries. These have now been completed for almost 1200 species. Species considered to be potentially at high risk are the focus of mitigation (catch reduction) measures and further assessment. As a result, projections of numbers of high risk species may vary from year to year. For 2014–15, while the number of species assessed as remaining at high risk after mitigation was higher than predicted, it is expected that this will reduce as mitigation measures in ecological risk management reports are implemented.

To reinforce these fisheries management programs, we also undertake extensive monitoring, control and surveillance activities to address risks of non-compliance by domestic and foreign fishers.

As a broad indication of our performance effectiveness in managing for sustainability, the 2013–14 Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences Status Report found that no stocks managed solely by the Commonwealth (AFMA) were subject to overfishing. We continue to work with the Department of Agriculture in refining the Commonwealth Harvest Strategy Policy in light of recommendations stemming from the department's review of the Harvest Strategy Policy and Guidelines.

AFNA boat inspection

Key performance indicators

2014–15 Forecast

2014–15 Actual

For economically significant stocks11:

a. maximise the number of key commercial stocks with harvest strategy targets based on maximum economic yield or the best available proxy 12

19

18

b. improve the number of stocks in (a) assessed as being on target

13

8

c. for those stocks in (a) that are assessed as not on target, improve the number that are heading towards their target reference point.

6

3

Key performance indicators

2014–15 forecast

2014–15 actual

Comment

Number of fish stocks subject to overfishing 13

0

0

The 2013–14 Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences Status Report notes that no stocks managed solely by the Australian Government are subject to overfishing.

Minimise the number of species assessed as remaining at high risk after mitigation14

66

72

It is expected that this will reduce as the mitigation measures in ecological risk management reports are implemented.

Maximise the disposal of apprehended foreign illegal unregulated and unreported vessels and suspected illegal entry vessels

100%

67%15

Of the six foreign fishing vessels apprehended two Indonesian vessels were disposed of on land, three Indonesian vessels sunk as they were unseaworthy and could not make port and the Papua New Guinea vessel remains in AFMA custody on Thursday Island pending disposal.

Treatment targets for all priority domestic compliance risks met

90%

82%

Of the initial 27 compliance targets, 10 were removed as they could not be measured. Of the remaining 17, 11 targets were met, another three met their threshold targets, and three did not meet the targets. The three targets not being met were due to resources being refocused to address emerging risks throughout the year.

Reports for each fishery

In 2013–14, AFMA was assessed against the sustainability performance of 93 fish stocks across 21 fisheries by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences. Sixty six stocks were assessed across nine fisheries that are managed solely by AFMA on behalf of the Australian Government, and 27 stocks were assessed across 12 fisheries that are managed jointly with other Australian jurisdictions or other countries. AFMA also manages many more species which are not assessed by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences but are managed by AFMA through fishery management plans, bycatch action plans, and ecological risk assessments.

For fisheries not solely managed by AFMA, evaluation of sustainability performance of fisheries management needs to consider relevant legislation and policies.

afma fisheries officer

Quick reference guide to domestic fisheries 2014–15

Fishery

Fisheries management

Science based decision making

Research and information

Effectiveness of management arrangements

Management plan

Bycatch action plan

Harvest strategy

Ecological risk assessment

Strategic assessment

Strategic research plan

Data acquisition plan

Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery

outline-tick

Coral Sea Fishery

n/a

outline-tick

outline-tick

outline-tick

outline-tick

Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery*

Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery*

n/a

Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery*

n/a

Norfolk Island Fisheries

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Northern Prawn Fishery

North West Slope Trawl Fishery

n/a

n/a

Skipjack Tuna Fishery*

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Small Pelagic Fishery

outline-tick

Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery*

n/a

Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery

Southern Squid Jig Fishery

Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery

n/a

n/a

Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery*

✔- Performance target met or exceeded for 2014–15 outline-tick- Performance target partially met for 2014–15 ✕ - Performance target not met for 2014–15

*denotes fishery that manages stocks that are not solely AFMA-managed

Stock status of target species

Not overfished/not subject to overfishing

Uncertain

Overfished/subject to overfishing

Source: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences Fishery status reports 2013–14, released in October 2014, which was the most current information available at the time this report was prepared.

Fishery

Common name (scientific name)

Status

2012

2013

Fishing mortality

Biomass

Fishing mortality

Biomass

Stocks managed solely by the Australian Government

Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery

Commercial scallop
(Pecten fumatus)

Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber Sector

Black teatfish
(Holothuria whitmaei)

Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber Sector

Prickly redfish
(Thelenota ananas)

Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber Sector

Surf redfish
(Actinopyga mauritiana)

Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber Sector

White teatfish
(Holothuria fuscogilva)

Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber Sector

Other sea cucumber species (~11 spp.)

Coral Sea Fishery: Aquarium Sector

Multiple species

Coral Sea Fishery: Lobster and Trochus Sector

Tropical rock lobster (Panulirus ornatus, possibly other species)

Coral Sea Fishery: Line and Trap Sector

Mixed reef fish and sharks

Coral Sea Fishery: Trawl and Trap Sector

Numerous fish, shark and crustacean species

Northern Prawn Fishery

Red-legged banana prawn (Penaeus indicus)

Northern Prawn Fishery

White banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis)

Northern Prawn Fishery

Brown tiger prawn
(Penaeus esculentus)

Northern Prawn Fishery

Grooved tiger prawn
(Penaeus semisulcatus)

Northern Prawn Fishery

Blue endeavour prawn (Metapenaeus endeavouri)

Northern Prawn Fishery

Red endeavour prawn (Metapenaeus ensis)

North West Slope Trawl Fishery

Scampi
(Metanephrops australiensis, M. boschmai, M. velutinus)

Small Pelagic Fishery

Australian sardine
(Sardinops sagax)

Small Pelagic Fishery

Blue mackerel, east
(Scomber australasicus)

Small Pelagic Fishery

Blue mackerel, west
(Scomber australasicus)

Small Pelagic Fishery

Jack mackerel, east
(Trachurus declivis)

Small Pelagic Fishery

Jack mackerel, west
(Trachurus declivis)

Small Pelagic Fishery

Redbait, east
(Emmelichthys nitidus)

Small Pelagic Fishery

Redbait, west
(Emmelichthys nitidus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Blue-eye trevalla (Hyperoglyphe antarctica)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Blue grenadier (Macruronus novaezelandiae)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Blue warehou
(Seriolella brama)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Deepwater sharks, eastern zone (18 spp.)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Deepwater sharks, western zone (18 spp.)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Eastern school whiting
(Sillago flindersi)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Flathead
(Neoplatycephalus richardsoni and 4 other spp.)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Gemfish, eastern zone
(Rexea solandri)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Gemfish, western zone
(Rexea solandri)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Gulper sharks
(Centrophorus harrissoni, C. moluccensis, C. zeehaani)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Jackass morwong (Nemadactylus macropterus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

John dory
(Zeus faber)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Mirror dory
(Zenopsis nebulosa)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Ocean jacket, eastern zone (Nelusetta ayraud)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Ocean perch
(Helicolenus barathri, H. percoides)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Orange roughy, Cascade Plateau
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Orange roughy, eastern zone (Hoplostethus atlanticus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Orange roughy, southern zone (Hoplostethus atlanticus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Orange roughy, western zone (Hoplostethus atlanticus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Oreodory: smooth, Cascade Plateau (Pseudocyttus maculatus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Oreodory: smooth, non–Cascade Plateau (Pseudocyttus maculatus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Oreodory: other
(Neocyttus rhomboidalis, Allocyttus niger, A. verrucosus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Pink ling
(Genypterus blacodes)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Redfish, eastern (Centroberyx affinis)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Ribaldo (Mora moro)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Royal red prawn
(Haliporoides sibogae)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors

Silver trevally
(Pseudocaranx georgianus)

SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl Sector

Silver warehou
(Seriolella punctata)

SESSF: East Coast Deepwater Trawl Sector

Alfonsino
(Beryx splendens)

SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl Sector

Bight redfish
(Centroberyx gerrardi)

SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl Sector

Deepwater flathead (Neoplatycephalus conatus)

SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl Sector

Ocean jacket, west
(Nelusetta ayraud)

SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl Sector

Orange roughy
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)

SESSF: Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectors

Elephantfish
(Callorhinchus milii)

SESSF: Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectors

Gummy shark
(Mustelus antarcticus)

SESSF: Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectors

Sawshark
(Pristiophorus cirratus, P. nudipinnis)

SESSF: Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectors

School shark
(Galeorhinus galeus)

Southern Squid Jig Fishery

Gould's squid
(Nototodarus gouldi)

Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery

Bugs
(Ibacus spp.)

Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery

Orange roughy
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)

Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery

Ruby snapper
(Etelis carbunculus)

Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery

Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides)

Fishery

Common name (scientific name)

Status

2012

2013

Fishing mortality

Biomass

Fishing mortality

Biomass

Stocks managed jointly by the Australian Government

South Tasman Rise Trawl Fishery

Orange roughy
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)

Torres Strait Finfish Fishery

Coral trout
(Plectropomus and Variola spp.)

Torres Strait Finfish Fishery

Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson)

Torres Strait Tropical Rock Lobster Fishery

Tropical rock lobster
(Panulirus ornatus)

Torres Strait Prawn Fishery

Brown tiger prawn
(Penaeus esculentus)

Torres Strait Prawn Fishery

Blue endeavour prawn (Metapenaeus endeavouri)

Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery

Black teatfish
(Holothuria whitmaei)

Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery

Prickly redfish
(Thelenota ananas)

Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery

Sandfish
(Holothuria scabra)

Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery

White teatfish
(Holothuria fuscogilva)

Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery

Other sea cucumbers
(up to 18 species)

Torres Strait Trochus Fishery

Trochus
(Trochus niloticus)

Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Striped marlin
(Tetrapturus audax)

Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Swordfish
(Xiphias gladius)

Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Albacore
(Thunnus alalunga)

Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Bigeye tuna
(Thunnus obesus)

Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Yellowfin tuna
(Thunnus albacares)

Skipjack Tuna Fishery: Pacific Ocean

Skipjack tuna
(Katsuwonus pelamis)

Skipjack Tuna Fishery: Indian Ocean

Skipjack tuna
(Katsuwonus pelamis)

Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery

Southern bluefin tuna
(Thunnus maccoyii)

Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Striped marlin
(Tetrapturus audax)

Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Swordfish
(Xiphias gladius)

Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Albacore
(Thunnus alalunga)

Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Bigeye tuna
(Thunnus obesus)

Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Yellowfin tuna
(Thunnus albacares)

Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery

Mackerel icefish
(Champsocephalus gunnari)

Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery

Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides)

Antarctic Fisheries

Antarctic-Fisheries

Major species

  • Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides)
  • Mackerel icefish (Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery only) (Champsocephalus gunnari).

Fishery/sector

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery

3878 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery

468 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

Report against management plans

Heard Island and McDonald Island Fishery

The Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery continued to be managed in accordance with the Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan 2002 and the conservation measures mandated by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. All operations conducted in the fishery were in compliance with the performance criteria outlined in the management plan. Six vessels operated in the fishery during 2014–15. Four vessels were longliners, one vessel both was a trawler/longliner, and another was a trawler.

Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery

The Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery continued to be managed in accordance with the Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan 2006. All operations conducted in the fishery were in accordance with the performance criteria outlined in the management plan. One longline vessel operated in 2014–15.

Developments in 2014–15

Heard Island and McDonald Island Fishery

AFMA prepared the annual Fishery Assessment Plan for the 2014–15 fishing season. The Plan outlines research requirements for operators in the fishery, including tagging and the fishery's random stratified trawl survey. In order to gather more information about the fishery, the tagging rate increased from two tags per three tonnes to two tags per tonne for the 2014–15 fishing season.

Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery

We prepared the annual Fishery Assessment Plan for the 2015–16 fishing season. The Fishery Assessment Plan outlines research requirements for fishers in the fishery.

The season dates were amended so that the fishing season starts on 15 April instead of 1 May each year. This change commences in the 2015–16 season and requires shortening the 2014–15 season by two weeks.

A trial of a two week extension to the longline fishing period, within the upcoming season will also be conducted. As a result, longline fishing commenced from 15 April 2015. If no seabirds are caught during the 2015 trial of the two week extension, it will be permanently set as 15 April to 31 August from 2016 onwards.

Coral Sea Fishery

Red Emperor juvenile Coral Sea

Major species:

Line and Trap Sector

  • Tropical finfish
  • Sharks.

Trawl and Trap Sector

  • Tropical finfish
  • Crustaceans.

Lobster and Trochus Sector

  • Tropical rock lobsters belonging to the genus Panulirus except P. cygnus
  • No trochus have been caught over the past five years.

Aquarium Sector

  • Chondrichthys (cartilaginous fishes)
  • Osteichthyes (bony fishes)
  • Invertebrates
  • Live rock (limestone encrusted with organisms).

Sea Cucumber Sector

  • White teatfish (Actinapyga mauritiana)
  • Surf redfish (Actinapyga mauritiana)
  • Prickly redfish (Thelenota ananas)

  • Black teatfish (Holothuria whitmaei)
  • Sandfish (Holothuria scabra)
  • Other sea cucumber species.

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

Estimated catch 2013–14

19 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

Report against management plans

The principal legal framework for the management of the fishery is specified in the Fisheries Management Act 1991 and the Fisheries Management Regulations 1992.

A limited number of fishing permits are granted each year under the Act. These permits are subject to certain conditions in the Act as well as conditions specified in the permits. The permits are sector specific and conditions include limits on gear, species size limits, trigger limits and total allowable catch limits.

Developments in 2014–15

The Department of the Environment is undertaking a review of the Commonwealth Marine Reserves proclaimed in November 2012. The impacts of the review on the Coral Sea Fishery are not known at this stage.

Until the review is complete, transitional arrangements are in place for marine reserves in the south-west, north-west, north, temperate east and Coral Sea. Transitional management arrangements leads to no changes to 'on the water' activities for users of the reserves, with activities able to continue.

The Fisheries Adjustment Assistance Package has been placed on hold while the review and management planning processes are undertaken.

Once the outcomes of the Commonwealth Marine Reserve review are known, the Coral Sea Fishery Stakeholder Group and Coral Sea Fishery Expert Panel will meet to advise AFMA on research planning, data requirements, ecological risk assessment and potential changes to harvest strategies.

Norfolk Island Fishery

blue grenadier

Major species

Norfolk Island Inshore Fishery

  • Red throat emperor (Lethrinus miniatus).

Norfolk Island Offshore Demersal Finfish Fishery

  • not applicable.

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

No commercial catch. Recreational and charter fishing only.

Nil

Report against management plans

There is no formal management plan for the Norfolk Island fisheries and there are currently no commercial fishing concessions in this fishery.

Developments in 2014–15

Norfolk Island Inshore fishery

The Norfolk Island Inshore Fishery is a recreational and charter based fishery, operating predominantly in shelf waters around Norfolk Island using handlines, winches, rods and reels. The fishery is managed by the Norfolk Island Government in accordance with the Norfolk Island Inshore Fishery Policy 2009 developed by the Norfolk Island Government, with input from AFMA and other Australian Government agencies. The associated Memorandum of Understanding has enabled AFMA to provide management expertise and guidance to the Norfolk Island Government and the Norfolk Island Fishing Association as required.

Norfolk Island Offshore Demersal Finfish Fishery

The fishery is currently closed.

Northern Prawn Fishery

prawns

Major species

  • Brown tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus)
  • Grooved tiger prawns (Penaeus semisulcatus)
  • White banana prawns (Penaeus merguiensis)
  • Red-legged banana prawns (Penaeus indicus)
  • Endeavour prawns (Metapenaeus endeavouri, M.ensis).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional Gross value of production 2013–14

8436 tonnes

$115 million

Report against management plans

The Northern Prawn Fishery continues to be managed in accordance with the Northern Prawn Fishery Management Plan 1995.

Future updates to the fishery's management arrangements may require changes to the management plan and will be subject to public consultation and ministerial acceptance.

Developments in 2014–15

Since the decision in 2013 by the then AFMA Commission that it was not optimal for the Northern Prawn Fishery to move to output controls (quota) but that significant improvements to the existing management arrangements were necessary, we have continued to work closely with stakeholders to improve the management arrangements under effort controls, particularly in relation to measures that address the risk of overcapacity and achieving economic inefficiency in the fishery.

During 2014–15 we have worked with stakeholders to develop an annually calculated and monitored (in-season) catch trigger to determine the optimum length of the white banana prawn fishing season and achieve the maximum economic yield target.  We have worked to develop and implement a method to measure changes in annual fishing power and incorporate that into the fishery stock assessment. We have also finalised an investigation of tools that can be used in the fishery management plan to adjust the fishing fleet where it is shown to be fishing at excess capacity.

All of these initiatives were developed in collaboration with the Northern Prawn Fishery Industry Pty Ltd.  As part of the co-management arrangements in the fishery we are also supporting the industry with its initiative to reduce bycatch in the fishery by 30 per cent over the next three years.

North West Slope and Western Deepwater Trawl fisheries

fresh cold prawns

Major species

North West Slope Trawl

  • Scampi (Metanephrops australiensis).

Western Deepwater Trawl

  • Bugs
  • Mixed finfish.

Fishery/sector

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional Gross value of production 2013–14

North West Slope Trawl Fishery

42 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery

10 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

Report against management plans

There is no formal management plan for the North West Slope and the Western Deepwater Trawl fisheries. Both fisheries are informally managed via fishing permits. Permit holders generally access the fisheries on a part time or opportunistic basis as an adjunct to other fisheries.

Under the harvest strategy, analysis of catch and effort data is conducted annually to assist in the management of the fisheries.

Developments in 2014–15

The Australian Government and Western Australian Government have agreed to realign the fisheries boundaries to be consistent with Geoscience Australia advice regarding the 200 metre isobath. Both governments are currently working together to implement these changes through the establishment of specific fisheries Memorandums of Understanding and amendments to the current Offshore Constitutional Settlements.

Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery

Pink Ling

Major species

Great Australian Bight Trawl Sector

  • Deepwater flathead (Neoplatycephalus conatus)
  • Bight redfish (Centroberyx gerrardi).

South East Trawl Sector

  • Blue grenadier (Macruronus novaezelandiae)
  • Pink ling (Genypterus blacodes)
  • Silver warehou (Seriolella punctata)
  • Tiger flathead (Neoplatycephalus richardsoni).

Gillnet, Hook and Trap Sector

  • Gummy shark (Mustelus antarcticus)
  • Pink ling (Genypterus blacodes)
  • Blue eye trevalla (Hyperoglyphe antarctica).

East Coast Deepwater Trawl Sector

  • Alfonsino (Beryx splendens).

Fishery/sector

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

Great Australian Bight Sector

2327 tonnes

$11 million

Gillnet, Hook and Trap Sector

3556 tonnes

$20 million

East Coast Deepwater Trawl Sector

26 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

South East Trawl Sector (includes Victorian Coastal Waters Permit)

12 252 tonnes

$40.5 million

Report against management plans

The fishery continues to be managed in accordance with the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery Management Plan 2003. In 2014, the South East Management Advisory Committee assessed the effectiveness of the Plan, including the measures taken to achieve the objectives of the Plan. The South East Management Advisory Committee made a number of recommendations which are being considered by AFMA Management in the context of regulatory reduction measures.

Developments in 2014–15

Ecological risk management

A project to update the ecological risk management strategy for the Southern and Eastern and Scalefish and Shark Fishery commenced in 2014–15. The Strategy details the management arrangements that we have implemented to address the high risk species assessed through the ecological risk assessment process and minimise the impact of fishing on the broader ecosystem. The objectives of the Strategy are to:

  • implement management arrangements to minimise fishing impact on non-target species and habitats, with a particular focus on high risk species and habitats assessed through AFMA's ecological risk assessment process
  • minimise interactions with species listed under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 excluding conservation dependent species.

Pink ling

In response to the eastern zone pink ling biomass being below target levels AFMA introduced daily limits and area closures to constrain fishing mortality in the eastern zone. We continue to investigate alternative management arrangements for this fishery.

Rebuilding strategies

We updated our stock rebuilding strategies for four Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery species, orange roughy, blue warehou, eastern gemfish and school shark. External and internal stakeholders were consulted during the development of these strategies. The primary objective of the rebuilding strategies is to halt the decline in biomass and promote the recovery of the stocks to above their limit reference point.

Orange roughy

Following implementation of the Orange Roughy Conservation Program in 2006 AFMA closed waters deeper than 700 metres to trawling and banned targeted fishing for orange roughy (with the exception of an area known as the Cascade Plateau where stocks were assessed as healthy). Surveys of orange roughy areas have been undertaken over the last 10 years. These data and biological information formed the basis for a new assessment of the eastern orange roughy stock that showed that the stock has rebuilt to a level that would support a small commercial harvest. Consequently in 2015 the eastern zone orange roughy stock was reopened to targeted fishing under strict management arrangements.

Snapper

AFMA and the South East Trawl Fishing Industry Association have entered into arrangements for the management of snapper caught by Commonwealth trawl boat concession holders in waters relevant to Victoria.

The principle of the new arrangement is to create a mechanism to allow incidental catches of snapper in excess of the trip limit to be landed instead of discarded, without creating incentives to target snapper.

Electronic monitoring in the Gillnet, Hook and Trap Sector

Electronic monitoring systems have been installed on 34 boats using demersal gillnet and longline methods. Electronic monitoring systems include data sensors and cameras to monitor fishing activity and support independent verification of catch and discard information in logbooks.

The cameras operate at all times while the boat is fishing. Video data saved on hard drives is then returned to AFMA for analysis each month. A minimum of 10 per cent of gear sets is reviewed and compared to what has been recorded in logbooks. This means greater confidence in the fishery stock assessments and more effective management for protected species bycatch.

Seal mitigation measures

Work to reduce interactions with seals continues to be a priority for AFMA and industry. An assessment of the use of shortened trawl net codends to mitigate seal interactions in the Southern and Eastern and Scalefish Fishery undertaken by the South East Trawl Fishing Industry Association in 2014–15 indicated that shortened codends do not appear to mitigate seal interactions.

Dolphins mitigation measures

During 2014 AFMA, working closely with scientists, fishers and environmental groups, developed and implemented a management strategy to address dolphin bycatch in the gillnet fishery. The objective of the Dolphin Strategy is to minimise dolphin mortalities in gillnets to as close to zero as possible. The Strategy aims to achieve this with individual responsibility and incentives for fishers to minimise their bycatch.

The Coorong region in South Australia was re-opened under the Strategy to gillnet fishing with 100 per cent electronic monitoring and strict performance requirements. Dolphin bycatch results in escalating management responses and requirements on fishers.

The Strategy is proving successful with fishers adapting their behaviour and fishing practices to avoid catching dolphins.

Research

Research supporting the fishery continued to be guided by the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery Five Year Research Plan 2011–15. During the 2014–15 period we worked with resource assessment groups and management advisory committees to develop the next five year strategic research plan.

Data acquisition plan

The Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery Resource Assessment Group will meet in July 2015 to consider data requirements for the fishery. Data needs will be determined based on assessment and monitoring requirements. The Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery Monitoring and Assessment Strategic Review research project continued in 2014–15. The project aims to identify options for improvement in the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of monitoring and assessment in the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. Concurrently, we are developing a data and assessment plan for the fishery which will be adapted to findings from the project.

Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery

scallops

Major species

Commercial scallops (Pecten fumatus).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

279 tonnes

$0.5 million

Report against management plans

During 2014–15, the fishery continued to be managed under arrangements in the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery Management Plan 2002.

Developments in 2014–15

In June 2014 the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery was opened to fishing under a new harvest strategy which had been developed with advice from the Scallop Resource Assessment Group and Scallop Management Advisory Committee. The new harvest strategy reserves some areas of adult scallops for spawning and recruitment, and allows fishing in other areas. Consistent with the requirements of the new harvest strategy, following scallop biomass surveys and Scallop Resource Assessment Group advice, the total allowable catch was increased from the starting level of 150 tonnes up to 1500 tonnes on 17 October 2014. A total of 1418 tonnes of the 1500 tonne total allowable catch was harvested during the season. From the perspective of catch rates and scallop condition, fishers advised us that this was one of the best seasons for at least 15 years.

In applying the new harvest strategy for the first time in 2014–15, a number of potential refinements were identified to improve the control rules in the harvest strategy. Consequently, a further review of the harvest strategy was undertaken after the start of the 2014 season opening in preparation for the 2015 season.

The Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery continued to operate under the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery Management Plan 2002 and Bass Strait Central Zone Fishery Strategic Research Plan.  

Southern Squid Jig fishery

squid dish

Major species

Arrow squid (Nototodarus gouldi).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

2 tonnes

$6000

Report against management plans

The Southern Squid Jig Fishery continues to be managed in accordance with the Southern Squid Jig Fishery Management Plan 2005 and the Arrow-Squid Fishery Harvest Strategy.

Developments in 2014–15

Arrow squid are a highly productive and relatively short lived species, which allows them to be managed through limits on the total allowable fishing effort. This limit was maintained at 550 standard squid jigging machines for the fishery in 2014 and 2015.

Actual fishing effort within the fishery varies between seasons but was relatively low during 2014 and 2015. The total catch in 2014 was small but significantly increased in 2015 with approximately 330 tonnes caught in the first six months up to July.

The majority of squid taken from the fishery is sold on the domestic market with some of the byproduct (mainly tentacles) exported to Mediterranean countries.

Most squid caught by the jigging method are taken from fishing grounds off Portland, Queenscliff and Lakes Entrance in Victoria, with a small number of operators fishing in waters off the coast of South Australia.

Skipjack Tuna Fishery

Skipjack Tuna

Major species

Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

Nil.

No fishing occurred.

Report against management plans

The fishery is managed in accordance with the Skipjack Tuna Harvest Strategy, the statement of fishery management arrangements and fishing concession conditions.

Developments in 2014–15

Effort in the fishery has remained at very low levels since 2008 due to economic reasons. There were no new management arrangements implemented in the fishery in 2014–15. No fishing occurred in the fishery in 2014–15.

Small Pelagic Fishery

Small-Pelagic-Fishery

Major species

  • Australian sardine (Sardinops sagax)
  • Blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus)
  • Jack mackerel (Trachurus declivis, T. murphyi)
  • Redbait (Emmelichthys nitidus).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

97 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

Report against management plans

The fishery continues to be managed in accordance with the Small Pelagic Fishery Management Plan 2009. In 2014, the South East Management Advisory Committee assessed the effectiveness of the Plan, including the measures taken to achieve the objectives of the Plan. The South East Management Advisory Committee made a number of recommendations which are being considered by AFMA Management in the context of regulatory reduction measures.

Developments in 2014–15

Following the publication of new research on appropriate harvest rates depending on each target species' biology, the Small Pelagic Fishery Harvest Strategy was amended in early 2015. The harvest strategy contains revised harvest rates for each of the four target species and new control rules to govern changes in harvest rates depending on information available. In adopting the new harvest strategy, the AFMA Commission identified a number of additional areas that could be improved. A further review of the harvest strategy will be undertaken in time for the 2016–17 season.

The Small Pelagic Fishery continued to operate under the Small Pelagic Fishery Five Year Strategic Research Plan 2012–13 to 2016–17.

During 2014, surveys were undertaken on the east coast of Australia to update population estimates for jack mackerel. The results were used in setting the 2015–16 total allowable catches under the revised harvest strategy. The 2015–16 total allowable catches increased for eastern jack mackerel and Australian sardine and decreased for the remaining stocks.

The FV Geelong Star, a mid-water trawl freezer vessel, commenced fishing in the Small Pelagic Fishery in April 2015. All mid-water trawl vessels fishing in the fishery are required to have a vessel management plan approved by AFMA. The Vessel Management Plan for the FV Geelong Star aimed to minimise the risk of interactions with protected species (seabirds, seals and dolphins) as well establishing regional catch limits and reporting requirements.

In response to dolphin and fur seal mortalities on the FV Geelong Star's second fishing trip, AFMA introduced a night time fishing ban on mid-water trawl vessels fishing in the Small Pelagic Fishery. As further protection and to provide incentive for fishers to make operational changes to reduce the risk of catching dolphins, a six month zone closure would be triggered if any dolphin mortalities occur red in any one of seven zones. Following a common dolphin mortality off New South Wales, zone 6 was closed to mid-water trawling for six months from 17 June 2015.

Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Eastern Tuna

Major species

  • Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga)
  • Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)
  • Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)
  • Broadbill swordfish (Xiphias gladius)
  • Striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

4682 tonnes

$31 million

Report against management plans

The fishery continued to be managed in accordance with the Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery Management Plan 2010, and conservation and management measures mandated by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission.

Developments in 2014–15

The harvest strategy was used for recommending the total allowable commercial catch limits of broadbill swordfish and striped marlin.

AFMA implemented a Direction to require electronic monitoring for all full time boats in the Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery from 1 July 2015. As part of this requirement we arranged for full time boats to be installed with electronic monitoring systems.

During May to November each year, we implement core and buffer zones in the fishery to ensure that any southern bluefin tuna caught is covered by quota. To enter the core and buffer zones, operators must hold a certain amount of southern bluefin tuna quota and meet a certain level of observer coverage.

This year, the zones were updated weekly using sea surface temperatures, scientific and industry information to provide more real-time management. In previous years, the zones had been updated fortnightly.

Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery

Southern Bluefin Tuna

Major species

Southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

5293 tonnes

$39 million

Report against management plans

In the 2013–14 fishing season several Australian companies overcaught their allocated quota by a total of approximately 108 tonnes. In accordance with the requirements of the Southern Bluefin Tuna Management Plan 1995, the corresponding amount of quota was taken off the respective companies' 2014–15 quota holdings.

Developments in 2014–15

In line with the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna Management Procedure, the Australian total allowable catch for southern bluefin tuna was set at 5665 tonnes for the 2014–15 fishing season.

In 2014 the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna employed an independent contractor to review the integrity and robustness of member countries monitoring and reporting systems. Australia's southern bluefin tuna fisheries management systems were shown to be effective, with well-established fisheries legislation, a strong fisheries management regulatory system and established fisheries reporting and sanctions.

Globally, southern bluefin tuna is considered overfished. The Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna Extended Scientific Committee conducted a full stock assessment in 2014. The assessment determined that the current spawning biomass remains very low, about nine per cent of historic levels. However, there has been some improvement since the 2011 stock assessment and the fishing mortality rate is below the level associated with maximum sustainable yield.

Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery

Western Tuna

Major species

  • Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)
  • Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)
  • Broadbill swordfish (Xiphias gladius)
  • Striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

336 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

Report against management plans

The fishery continued to be managed in accordance with the Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery Management Plan 2005 and resolutions mandated by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission.

Developments in 2014–15

The Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery has continued to operate at low levels of effort due to economic conditions.

AFMA implemented a Direction to require electronic monitoring for all full time boats in the Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery from 1 July 2015. As part of this requirement we arranged for full time boats to be installed with electronic monitoring systems.

High Seas Permits

High Seas Permits

Major species

Orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)

Alfonsino (Beryx splendens)

Blue-eye trevalla (Hyperoglyphe antarctica)

Jackass morwong (Nemadactylus macropterus)

Yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

Smooth oreodory (Pseudocyttus maculates)

Spikey oreodory (Neocyttus rhomboidalis)

Redthroat emperor (Lethrinus miniatus)

Boarfish (Pentacerotidae spp.)

Cardinal fish (Apogonidae, Dinolestidae).

Estimated catch 2013–14

Provisional gross value of production 2013–14

600 tonnes

Due to the small number of operators, this information is confidential.

Report against management plans

High Seas Permits are managed consistent with conservation and management measures applying under the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation and Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement. Operational requirements are implemented through conditions on High Seas Permits.

Developments in 2014–15

High Seas Permits allow Australian flagged vessels to fish in designated areas for non-highly migratory species in the South Pacific Ocean and the Southern Indian Ocean outside the Australian Fishing Zone. The designated fishing areas are based on international agreements for demersal fishing between the Australian Government and other fishing nations.

The third South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation Commission meeting was held in February 2015. At this meeting data standards, compliance, boarding and inspection procedures and regulation of transhipments were considered. New conservation and management measures for bottom fishing and minimising bycatch of seabirds came into effect in May 2014 and have been applied since.

The 2012 Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences High Seas Sustainability Assessment concluded that no stocks fished by High Seas permit holders were overfished or subject to overfishing. Stocks of orange roughy in the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation area and orange roughy and alfonsino stocks in the Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement area were assessed as uncertain.

3 Includes only research projects that AFMA contracts with the research provider. It does not include research projects administered by other agencies in which AFMA co-invests.

4 Performance cannot be forecast reliably.

5 Performance cannot be forecast reliably.

6 Expressed as a proportion of fortified vessels brought to AFMA commissioned caretaking and disposal facilities. The actual numbers depend on the number apprehended and brought to the disposal facilities through Civil Maritime Surveillance and Response Program (Customs and Border Security Program 1.4), and cannot be forecast reliably.

7 Note multiple capacity building programs delivered in four countries.

8 Note multiple capacity building programs delivered in five countries.

9 Expressed as a proportion of forfeited vessels brought to AFMA commissioned caretaking and disposal facilities. The actual numbers depend on the number apprehended and brought to the disposal facilities through the Civil Maritime Surveillance and Response Program and cannot be forecast reliably.

10 Of the three vessels received by AFMA one vessel remains detained in the Torres Strait office pending disposal - hence 67% of vessels received by AFMA have been disposed.

11 Please note that not all Commonwealth fish stocks can be managed by MEY, for example, those managed under international regional bodies.

12 Where higher and lower value species are caught together, different targets for the lower value species may maximise net economic returns over all.

13 In AFMA managed fisheries, not including jointly and internationally managed fisheries.

14 Ecological risk assessments for Commonwealth managed fisheries and sub-fisheries have been completed covering almost 1200 species. Species considered to be potentially at high risk are the subject of mitigation measures and further assessment. This may mean that projections of numbers of high risk species may vary from year to year.

15 While six vessels were apprehended AFMA only received three, two of which were disposed on land and one remains in detention pending disposal hence 67% of received vessels have been disposed of in financial year 2014–15